Essentuki - city and SPA
Essentuki (Russian: Ессентуки́) is a town in Stavropol Krai, Russia, located at the base of the Caucasus Mountains.
In 1798, the Russian military and border redoubt of Yessentuksky was laid on the right bank of the Bolshoy Yessentuchok River, near its confluence with the Podkumok River. After construction of the Kislovodsk fortress (founded in 1803), the redoubt was abolished, and only the Cossack post was kept on its site. The mineral waters of Yessentuki were first probed in 1810 by the Moscow doctor Fyodor Gaaz.
Since 1840, springs No. 4 and 17 have come into use and become especially popular. Yessentuki was recognised as one of the best health resorts for treatment of the digestive organs.
Fast growth of the Essentuki health resort in the last third of the 19th and the early 20th centuries attracted famous representatives of Russian culture. The health resort operates 25 sanatoriums, including 10 trade-union ones (the number of beds totalling to more than 10 thousand), as well as provided outpatient treatment and board and treatment authorisation. Service of guests involved such facilities as a resort polyclinic with aerosun rooms and climatic pavilions; a therapeutic mud bath; 3 bathhouses: Nizhniye (lower) baths (50 baths), Verkhniye (upper) baths (90 baths), and a new bathhouse (110 baths); 4 drinking galleries and well-rooms of springs No. 4 and 17; an inhalatorium shared by all the resorts; a department of mechanotherapy, applying special techniques of therapeutic physical training.
Of all mineral springs of Yessentuki, about twenty are of medical value. Sodium carbonic hydrocarbonate-chloride (i.e. salt-alkaline) water of springs #4 and #17, which have made the health resort popular, are the most famous and therapeutically valuable. The hot springs (35.5°–46°C) similar to the waters of springs #4 and #17 in their structure have been led to the surface in the vicinities of the village of Novoblagodarnoye (8 kilometers (5 mi) north of Yessentuki). The water of springs #4 and #17 and their analogues are used for peroral treatment. Carbonic hydrogen-sulphide water of holes #1 and #2, as well as calcium-sodium hydrosulphuric sulphate-hydrocarbonate (the so-called sulphur-alkaline) water of the Gaazo-Ponomarevsky spring are used for baths, lavages, inhalations and other balneotherapeutic procedures. Calcium-magnesium sulphate-hydrocarbonate water of spring #20 is used for baths. The water of springs #4 and #17 is bottled by a local bottler as a healing water (#17) and as a healing table water (#4) under the name of Yessentuki.
Alongside with mineral waters, the medical establishments of Essentuki uses sulphide silt muds of Tambukan Lake (8 kilometers (5 mi) southeast of Pyatigorsk). Besides, climatotherapy, electrochromophototherapy, etc. are widely used. The health resort specialises in treatment of patients with diseases of digestion organs as well as those with metabolic disorder.
Points of interest
The majority of sanatoriums and boarding houses are concentrated around Glavny Park. The area to the north of the Park (between the latter and the railway line) was developed since the end of the 19th century as a zone for private sanatoriums, villas.
The main area of modern industrial and residential building is the so-called Novye Yessentuki. Among the significant structures of the middle of the 20th century are four solemn entrances to the Kurortny Park (mid-1950s, architect P. P. Yeskov), the drinking gallery of spring No. 4 (1967, architect V. N. Fuklev), the Ukraina sanatorium (1972), etc.
The climate is moderately continental. Winter is mild, with thaws; the temperature in January averages to -4°С; severe frosts sometimes take place; mists are frequent. Spring is short, sometimes the weather is cool, rainy (mostly in April). Summer is warm, with a large number of hot and dry days; the temperature in July averages to 25°С. Autumn is warm and lasting; the temperature in September averages to about 15-20°С. Precipitations of about 500 mm a year. A large number of clear, sunny days (280 a year on average) is characteristic. The open position in the east and in the west makes Essentuki accessible for winds prevailing here: dry eastern ones, which are hot in summer and cold in winter; and wet south-west ones, cool in summer and warm in winter.
SPA and Treatment
SPA and heals resort has the experience in treating natural factors: sulfide silt mud of the Tambukan lake, carbonate-mineral water and implements in Essentuki Balneomud treatment as follows:
- Tambukan mud treatment,
- Dermato-cosmetic medical services.
Due to technical capabilities of our department, mineral waters come from wells directly into the treatment room. Procedures with mineral waters promote harmonization, improve metabolism.
Essentuki #17 – mineral water, which contain biologically active concentration of potassium, ionide, zinc, calcium, bromine. Drinking course of mineral water improves the function of immune system, antiflammatory effect, effects all types of metabolism including the exchange of fat, contributes to the restoration of disturbed functions of the organism in a number of diseases.
General indications for treatment: diseases of the musculoskeletal system, diseases of the digestive system, of the upper and lower airways, metabolic disorders, peripheral nervous system diseases, skin diseases, gynecological and urological inflammatory diseases, diabetes, amphodontosis, dandruff.
General contraindications: cancer, exacerbation of chronic diseases, cardiac rhythm and conduction, pregnancy, blood and infectious diseases.